James Gosling: idealism, the Internet and Java, Pt I

Wednesday 31 January 2018

Core Java: Immutable objects and mutable objects with an example

Immutable objects and mutable objects with an example 

In object oriented programming language in short OOPS, every problem, precisely every requirement is viewed as an object. Understanding the problem in this point of view brings many good things possible in programming like encapsulation, abstraction, polymorphism and inheritance. Anyways this post is not intended for describing benefits of OOPS.

Object could be any thing. Let us take Car for an instance. Basically car is an object and it has name, wheels, metal body, engine, maximum speed,  gear box etc as properties.

Let us consider the car name is Ferrari, maximum speed is 200 km per hr with 6 gears. While driving the car driver can change the speed of the car and change the gear etc.
So while car is running it's current speed, current gear are considered to be state of the object.
The current speed can be changed using accelerator and gear can be changed using gear box. These can be considered as behavior of the car object. Of course car has a name as well.

 Every object has 3 characteristics they are State, Behavior and Name. 

In our example Ferrari is name of the object. Number of gears, current gear, current speed are State and accelerator and gear box decides the behavior of the car object. In java language object's reference name is name of object and methods which decides state are behavior.  

ImmutableObject ferrari = new ImmutableObject("Ferrari", 200, "Red");

             1. new operator creates the object
             2. ferrari is name of object
             3. Ferrari, 200, and Red are State of object

Objects based upon it's behavior can be categorized into two types. They are 
              1. Immutable objects and 
              2. Mutable objects

Mutable and Immutable objects

Mutable object's state can be changed at run time, where as immutable object's state can not be changed. String class is the ideal example for immutable objects. 
The state of an object can be decided at it's creation time or at run time or at both times. If state is decided at creation time and it is restricted not be changed at run time, this object is considered to be an  immutable object. If this can be changed at run time, it is called as mutable object.

If car is automatic [no gears] and it's speed can not be changed at any time, then it is immutable car object.  

Below program creates immutable objects:

01  public final class ImmutableObject {
03  private String name;
05  private int maxSpeed;
07  private String color;
09  /**
10  * @param name
11  *            holds car name
12  * @param maxSpeed
13  *            holds maximum speed of the car
14  * @param color
15  *            holds color of car
16  */
17  public ImmutableObject(String name, int maxSpeed, String color) {
18  this.name = name;
19  this.maxSpeed = maxSpeed;
20  this.color = color;
21  }
23  public String getName() {
24  return name;
25  }
27  public int getMaxSpeed() {
28  return maxSpeed;
29  }
31  public String getColor() {
32  return color;
33  }
35  public static void main(String[] args) {
36  ImmutableObject ferrari = new ImmutableObject("Ferrari", 200, "Red");
37  System.out.println("Car name: " + ferrari.getName());
38  System.out.println("Car color:" + ferrari.getColor());
39  System.out.println("Car maximum speed:" + ferrari.getMaxSpeed());
40  System.out.println();
42  ImmutableObject anotherCar = new ImmutableObject("BMW", 180, "White");
43  System.out.println("Car name: " + anotherCar.getName());
44  System.out.println("Car color:" + anotherCar.getColor());
45  System.out.println("Car maximum speed:" + anotherCar.getMaxSpeed());
46  }
47  }


Car name: Ferrari
Car color:Red
Car maximum speed:200

Car name: BMW
Car color:White
Car maximum speed:180


Line 1: First and fore most rule is to make your class final class.

Line 3 to Line 7: All variables are private variables. private access modifier restrics usage of members within the class

Note: Do not use other classes as data types of your instance variables which are mutable in behavior. All of our example variables are of String type. String is immutable. See API document of String class for more information.   

Line 17: Creates parameterised constructor with state which can not be changed at run time

Line 23 to Line 33: Create only those methods which shares it's state to the other classes. As we did in our example ImmutableObject. Allows only getter methods and no setter methods at all.

Line 36 to Line 42: Finally, create 2 objects ferrari and another car with different state which can not be changed at run time..

Now, let us change the same class which allows creating mutable objects:

02 public class MutableObject {
04 private String name;
06 private int maxSpeed;
08 private String color;
10 private int currentGear;
12 private int currentSpeed;
14 /**
15 * @param name
16 *            holds car name
17 * @param maxSpeed
18 *            holds maximum speed of the car
19 * @param color
20 *            holds color of car
21 */
22 public MutableObject(String name, int maxSpeed, String color) {
23 this.name = name;
24 this.maxSpeed = maxSpeed;
25 this.color = color;
26 }
28 public String getName() {
29 return name;
30 }
32 public int getMaxSpeed() {
33 return maxSpeed;
34 }
36 public int getCurrentGear() {
37 return currentGear;
38 }
40 public void setCurrentGear(int currentGear) {
41 this.currentGear = currentGear;
42 }
44 public int getCurrentSpeed() {
45 return currentSpeed;
46 }
48 public void setCurrentSpeed(int currentSpeed) {
49 this.currentSpeed = currentSpeed;
50 }
52 public String getColor() {
53 return color;
54 }
56 public static void main(String[] args) {
57 MutableObject ferrari = new MutableObject("Ferrari", 200, "Red");
58 System.out.println("Car name: " + ferrari.getName());
59 System.out.println("Car colo: " + ferrari.getColor());
60 System.out.println("Car maximum speed:" + ferrari.getMaxSpeed());
62 ferrari.setCurrentGear(5);
63 ferrari.setCurrentSpeed(150);
64 System.out.println(String.format("Current speed is %s and current gear is %s \n", ferrari.getCurrentSpeed(), ferrari.getCurrentGear()));
67 ferrari.setCurrentGear(1);
68 ferrari.setCurrentSpeed(10);
69 System.out.println(String.format("Changed state at run time!.. \nCurrent speed is %s and current gear is %s ", ferrari.getCurrentSpeed(), ferrari.getCurrentGear()));
72 System.out.println();
74 }


Car name: Ferrari
Car colo: Red
Car maximum speed:200
Current speed is 150 and current gear is 5 

Changed state at run time!.. 
Current speed is 10 and current gear is 1 



Line 2: Remove final keyword. This makes the class extendable using extend keyword

Line 10 to Line 12: Introduced new variables which adds new information to the state of object

Line 40 and Line 48: Introduced new setter methods which changes state at run time.

Line 57: Finally, create the ferrari object and change it's state run time by calling different setter methods.

Line 62 to Line 72: Changes the state by calling setters on member variables.  

Few more details about immutable objects:

  • It is always good practice to use immutable objects in our application especially in concurrent apps where ever applicable
  • Immutable objects ensures correct results/output always in all environments like multi threading environment, collection framework.
  • HashMap<key, value> always requires immutable object as key. Otherwise it behaves in undetermined way.
  • Consider cloning when creating immutable classes. I will post another article about importance of deep cloning and shallow copy in details in near future.
  • Cache memory implementation uses immutable objects 
  • java.lang.String is the most used immutable class in java


Monday 29 January 2018

Swing JLabel demo with example

This article is continuation of previous post JFrame usage demo. Please read it before continuing.

This post uses the same example code shown in JFrame usage demo with JLabel changes and introduces layout manager BorderLayout.

Layout Manager:

Layout manager is responsible to arrange components on containers. Usually every swing container is created with a default layout manager but can be changed with setLayout() api. For example JFrame uses BorderLayout as default layout amanger.

Java program for JLabel

2   import java.awt.BorderLayout;
3   import java.awt.Color;
4   import java.awt.Font;

6   import javax.swing.JFrame;
7   import javax.swing.JLabel;
8   import javax.swing.SwingUtilities;

10  /**
11   *
12   * Simple class to demonstrate JLabel of swing toolkit
13   *
14   * @author Nagasharath
15   *
16   */
17  public class LabelDemo extends JFrame {
19  private final String title = "It's all abt java!...  ";
21  private JLabel label;
23  /**
24  * set properties of the main window. Title, size of frame and position/location
25  */
26  public LabelDemo() {
27  this.setTitle(title);
28  this.setSize(300, 200);
29  this.setLocationRelativeTo(null);
30  initComponents();
31  }
33  /**
34  * instantiates controls controls.
35  *
36  */
37  private void initComponents() {
38  BorderLayout layout = new BorderLayout(20, 10);
39  this.setLayout(layout);
41  label = new JLabel("java-gui.blogspot.com");
42  label.setForeground(Color.RED);
43  label.setFont(new Font(Font.MONOSPACED, Font.BOLD, 25));
44  this.getContentPane().add(label, BorderLayout.CENTER);
45  }
47  public static void main(String[] args) {
49  Runnable r = () -> {
50  LabelDemo demo = new LabelDemo();
51  demo.setVisible(true);
52  };
53  SwingUtilities.invokeLater(r);
54  }
55  }

Line 21: Introduced new variable of type JLabel

Line 38 and Line 39: Used BorderLayout as layout manager to arrange label component on JFrame container

Line 41: Instantiated label with a text of String type.

Line 42 and Line 43:  label properties like foreground color, font style, size, type and background etc are specified

Line 44:  Finally added this label to the JFrame using add().


JFrme with JLabel

Swing: JFrame usage demo

This post helps in understanding usage of JFrame class with an example

Swing toolkit categorizes components into 2 types. They are:

  • Containers
  • Controls

Containers allows Controls to be arranged on them. JPanel, JFrame and JDialog are few which are frequently used.

Controls are components like Buttons, labels, tables etc. These controls are arranged on containers using different layout managers.

All Swing class names starts with J stands for Java which symbolizes swing is pure java! 

Layout Managers:

Layout manager is responsible for laying out controls on containers according to the business requirement. Example layout managers are BorderLayout, GridLayout, GridBagLayout and FlowLayout.

Few points about JFrame:
  • JFrame is considered as a main window of the application.for almost all swing based applications
  • All other controls and containers are created as child components of JFrame
  • JFrama holds special components like  Menu bar, Tool bar etc  

Example program

1 import javax.swing.JFrame;
2 import javax.swing.SwingUtilities;
4 /**
5  *
6  * Simple class to demonstrate JFrame container of swing toolkit
7  *
8  * @author Nagasharath
9  *
10 */
11public class FrameDemo extends JFrame {
13 private final String title = "It's all abt java!...  ";
15 /**
16 * set properties of the main window. Title, size of frame and position/location
17 */
18 public FrameDemo() {
19 this.setTitle(title);
20 this.setSize(300, 200);
21 this.setLocationRelativeTo(null);
22 initComponents();
23 }
25 /**
26 * It is used in future articles for instantiating controls like buttons etc.
27 * left empty for now.
28 */
29 private void initComponents() {
30 }
32 public static void main(String[] args) {
34 Runnable r = () -> {
35 FrameDemo demo = new FrameDemo();
36 demo.setVisible(true);
37 };
38 SwingUtilities.invokeLater(r);
39 }

Line 1: Our class FrameDemo extends JFrame hence gets all benefits that JFrame possess    

Line 20: Sets the width 300 and height 200. How ever frame is re sizable at run time

Line 21:  Puts the frame at the center of the desktop monitor

Line 36: Unless call to setVisible(true), frame can not be seen at all.

Line 38: It is always good practice to call setVisible(true) in invokeLater().

Output on Win 10:

The look and feel we see below  is default which is same on all platforms 

This Look and feel can be changed using UIManager class. We see it in coming posts.  

JFrame with title

Sunday 28 January 2018

Java Multi threaded programming basics with Reentrant lock

Java Multi threaded programming basics with Reentrant locks

As we have seen in earlier post that implicit locking mechanism achieved using synchronized keyword slows down the application performance. Hence java concurrency api gives explicit locking mechanism to achieve mutual exclusion among shared object.

How using explicit locks are better than implicit lock?

  • Explicit lock acquires lock per Thread basis and not per method invoke basis. It is inverse in the case of implicit lock.  
  • If a method is synchronized then every invocation of that method involves acquiring and releasing of lock. This process really slows down the application performance. 
  • Hence it is always good idea to prefer reentrent lock or explicit lock to implicit lock.
  • ReentrantLock is a class available in java.util.concurrency package
  • lock() and unlock() methods are used used to acquire and release the lock.
  • Condition class is used in place of Object class wait(), notifyAll() and notify().
  • signal() and await() of Condtion are used mostly 
Let's see the  Java Multi threaded programming basics Producer and Consumer Problem's solution with Reentrent lock.

import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.concurrent.CopyOnWriteArrayList;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Condition;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantLock;

 * In {@code BufferImpl} we have seen thread safe 
 * buffer implementation using implicit lock/ synchronization block
 * This {@code BufferImpl_conc} we see same implementation replacing implicit
 * lock with concurrency utility classes Reentrant Locks
 * Buffer implementation with ArrayList and with Producer consumer 
 * problem implementation
 * @author Nagasharath
public class BufferImpl_conc {

   private CopyOnWriteArrayList<String> buffer;
   private final short SIZE = 10;
   private boolean isBufferFull = false;
   private ReentrantLock lock;
   private Condition condition;

  public BufferImpl_conc() {
     buffer = new CopyOnWriteArrayList<String>();
     lock = new ReentrantLock();
     condition = lock.newCondition();

  * @throws InterruptedException
 private void producesFeed() throws InterruptedException {
    try {
       while (true) {
         if (isBufferFull) {
             System.out.println("Started Consuming!....\n");
        if (SIZE <= buffer.size()) {
              isBufferFull = true;
              System.out.println("Buffer full. Production halts...\n");
    } finally {

  * @throws InterruptedException
 private void consumesFeed() throws InterruptedException {
    try {
       while (true) {
          Iterator<String> iter = buffer.iterator();
          while (iter.hasNext()) {
             String next = iter.next();
             System.out.println("Consuming element: " + next);
          isBufferFull = false;
          System.out.println("Started producing!....");
   } finally {
  * @author Nagasharath
 class ProducerThread extends Thread {
    public void run() {
      try {
      } catch (InterruptedException e) {

  * @author Nagasharath
 class ConsumerThread extends Thread {
  public void run() {
    try {
    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
 public static void main(String[] args) {
   BufferImpl_conc impl = new BufferImpl_conc();
   ProducerThread producerThread = impl.new ProducerThread();
   ConsumerThread consumerThread = impl.new ConsumerThread();

Most parts of the program are same as we used in the post Java Multi threaded programming basics It is advised to read my post  Java Multi threaded programming basics before reading this. I try to explain changes from earlier post program here

  1 private final short SIZE = 10;
  2 private boolean isBufferFull = false;
  3 private ReentrantLock lock;
  4 private Condition condition;

Line 3: Instance of ReentrantLock is similar to synchronized keyword locking but it is more intelligent.
Line 4: Condition instance has methods which replaces Object class wait and notify() methods.

  1  public BufferImpl_conc() {
  2     buffer = new CopyOnWriteArrayList<String>();
  3     lock = new ReentrantLock();
  4     condition = lock.newCondition();
  5  }
Line 3 and Line 4: Instantiates lock and condition Objects

 1 private void producesFeed() throws InterruptedException {
 2   lock.lock();
 3    try {
 4      while (true) {
 5         if (isBufferFull) {
 6             System.out.println("Started Consuming!....\n");
 7             condition.signal();
 8             condition.await();
 9         }
 10         buffer.add(String.valueOf(System.nanoTime()));
 11         if (SIZE <= buffer.size()) {
 12           isBufferFull = true;
 13           Thread.sleep(10000);
 14           System.out.println("Buffer full. Production halts...\n");
 15         }
 16       }
 17     } finally {
 18          lock.unlock();
 19     }
 20 }
Line 1: await() at line 8 throws InterruptedException
Line 2: lock.lock() statement is equal to the synchronized(this)  {  . . .  }
Line 7: condition.signal() notifies the waiting thread on same object to start it's execution
Line 8: condition.await() makes current thread to wait on isBufferFull == true condition check
Line 17 to Line 19: lock.unlock() must be called in finally block always


Buffer full. Production halts...

Started Consuming!....

Consuming element: 2838231927112595
Consuming element: 2838231927212435
Consuming element: 2838231927229502
Consuming element: 2838231927238888
Consuming element: 2838231927246995
Consuming element: 2838231927254675
Consuming element: 2838231927261075
Consuming element: 2838231927267902
Consuming element: 2838231927274302
Consuming element: 2838231927281555
Started producing!....
Buffer full. Production halts...

Started Consuming!....

Consuming element: 2838242029132348
Consuming element: 2838242029210428
Consuming element: 2838242029244561
Consuming element: 2838242029271015
Consuming element: 2838242029386215
Consuming element: 2838242029448935
Consuming element: 2838242029479228
Consuming element: 2838242029504401
Consuming element: 2838242029529148
Consuming element: 2838242029553895
Started producing!....
Buffer full. Production halts...

Started Consuming!....

Consuming element: 2838252029524881
Consuming element: 2838252029547921
Consuming element: 2838252029556881
Consuming element: 2838252029563281
Consuming element: 2838252029568401
Consuming element: 2838252029573521
Consuming element: 2838252029578215
Consuming element: 2838252029582908
Consuming element: 2838252029588028
Consuming element: 2838252029593148
Started producing!....
Buffer full. Production halts...

Started Consuming!....

Consuming element: 2838262032106639
Consuming element: 2838262032149732
Consuming element: 2838262032165092
Consuming element: 2838262032193252
Consuming element: 2838262032204772
Consuming element: 2838262032214585
Consuming element: 2838262032223972
Consuming element: 2838262032233359
Consuming element: 2838262032241892
Consuming element: 2838262032251279
Started producing!....
Buffer full. Production halts...

Started Consuming!....

Consuming element: 2838272040024285
Consuming element: 2838272040065245
Consuming element: 2838272040077619
Consuming element: 2838272040086152
Consuming element: 2838272040093832
Consuming element: 2838272040101512
Consuming element: 2838272040108766
Consuming element: 2838272040115592
Consuming element: 2838272040122845
Consuming element: 2838272040130099
Started producing!....


Java desktop GUI.

Graphical user interface in short GUI makes computer users easy to understand and use the application software comfortably. Almost all modern programming languages allows application developers to develop GUIs.

Java has AWT/Swing as default API as part of Java Foundation classes in short JFC which are shipped with JDK. Hence these toolkits can be used directly in our applications with out adding external libraries like jars to our application's class path. But there are some other toolkits which found useful and industry endorsed in developing GUI.

    •      SWT 
    •      JFaces [Framework for SWT]
    •      Java FX
    •      Swing
    •      AWT


Abstract window toolkit is available since java first version. AWT uses native operating system resources like Fonts, colors and components like table, tree, dialogues, windows etc.

Few notable points about AWT:
  • AWT is heavy weight. It uses OS resources
  • There are limited components in AWT precisely only components which are available in native OS. 
  • We can not have a new component according to our business logic need. ex: Tri state checkbox or treetable  
  • AWT behaves differently on different platforms
  • Hence it violates the java Platform independence rule
  • The program GUI developed with AWT looks differently on different OSs. Means on linux it renders linux graphics look and feel and on windows platform it renders windows graphics look and feel.   
  • Provides event model API which also used by Swing toolkit


  • Swing was designed and developed keeping all cons in mind that are caused due to using AWT toolkit.
  • First of all "Swing is pure java hence it is platform independent." This statement made many good things possible:
Few notable points about Swing:
  •  Swing is light weight. It does not depend on native OS resources 
  •  Unlike AWT, it is extensible. New custom components can be developed according to program  requirement. 
   NOTE: See swingx library in it's official site.
  •  Swing has Pluggable look-and-feel support in short PLAF.
  •  Drag and Drop api, 2D api, internationalization are few among other included in Swing toolkit.
  •  Netbeans IDE itself is a good example for swing based application used allot now a days.
  •  Few GUI experts noticed that Swing is slow and not quite professional for commercial applications


Standard Widget toolkit in short SWT is another toolkit for developing Java Desktop GUI based applications.
Compared to Swing it is faster and consistent in performance and Eclipse IDE itself is an example for SWT based applications.
Eclipse is industry endorsed IDE specifically for java based software development.
This is not shipped with JDK. Please see eclipse.org [official site] for more details.
And there are Integrated development environments in short IDE which provides Drag and Drop [DAD] palettes also known as GUI Builders for above toolkits for programmer's convenience.
Mostly used IDEs are:
It is advised to code manually to develop the GUI rather using GUI builders provided by different IDEs. And for beginners.  

Saturday 27 January 2018

Java Multi threaded programming basics

All modern computer hardware architectures and operating systems are capable and optimized for multi processor system and multi threaded system. 

Process Vrs Thread:

Process is heavy weight where as Thread is light weight. Thread is light weight because process uses it's own address space and thread shares the Process's address space. So Threads are considered to be subset of a process. more over threads consumes less OS resources in terms of physical memory and uses CPU time at most.

Junior programmers think concurrency is hard. 
Experienced programmers think concurrency is easy. 
Senior programmers think concurrency is hard. 
                                                                                  _Java Concurrency Essentials by Martin


Java supports implementing multi threaded applications using java core API and keywords.
Java Run time in short JRE closely works with native operating system at run time to run applications in multi threaded environment.

Java Support for Thread:

Keywords: synchronized, volatile

API support: Basically Runnable Interface, Thread class, Object class and java.util.concurrency package [> java 5] and few other API

Java categorizes Threads into 2 types.

1. Daemon Threads

Daemon threads mostly runs with less priority to compute some not so important task quickly. periodically. [EX: finalize() of Object class (Not advised to override at all. instead use finally block)] and JVM itself starts few daemon threads internally.
These Threads are active until all normal threads are terminated. The main thread is the last normal thread that gets terminated when the application is closed. Hence once this main thread is terminated all daemon threads are terminated subsequently and application is closed.

NOTE: Any threads can be marked as daemon thread using Thread class setDaemon().

2. User Threads
User threads are any threads that programmer creates using java api to compute some tasks concurrently which executes concurrently with other threads.

Advantages of Multi thread Programming:

     Let's consider a use case which demonstrates multi threaded environment.
  1. Simple buffer which stores data temporarily while computing some task.
  2. Buffer size is 10 and dynamically can not be changed.
  3. Producer algorithm: Sequence of instructions which produces data for this buffer.
  4. Consumer algorithm: Sequence of instructions which consumes data from this buffer.
  5. Once buffer is full, delete all elements so that producer algorithm starts producing new feed.
  6. Consumer not allowed to consume data unless buffer is full and empties the buffer
  7. Once it consumes all elements then, let's producer know that it can start producing elements.

This above problem can be considered as a producer and consumer problem which can be solved in number of ways. But it is always good idea to use multiple threads.

How Multi threaded environment enhances the application performance?

Multi threaded programs uses the modern computers operating system resources at maximum, hence gives       
      1. High throughput,
      2. Faster execution,
      3. Quick responsiveness are few among others

Let's see how producer and consumer problem in short PC Problem can be solved using Java:

import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.concurrent.CopyOnWriteArrayList;

 * Buffer implementation with ArrayList and with Producer consumer problem impl
 * using traditional synchronization or implicit lock
 * @author Nagasharath
public class BufferImpl {

    private CopyOnWriteArrayList<String> buffer;

    private final short SIZE = 10;

    private boolean isBufferFull = false;

    public BufferImpl() {
        buffer = new CopyOnWriteArrayList<String>();

* @throws InterruptedException
private void producesFeed() throws InterruptedException {
    synchronized (this) {

        while (true) {
            if (isBufferFull) {
                System.out.println("Started Consuming!....\n");

        if (SIZE <= buffer.size()) {
            isBufferFull = true;
            System.out.println("Buffer full. Production halts...\n");

* @throws InterruptedException
private void consumesFeed() throws InterruptedException {
        synchronized (this) {
            while (true) {
                Iterator<String> iter = buffer.iterator();
                while (iter.hasNext()) {
                    String next = iter.next();
                    System.out.println("Consuming element: " + next);
                isBufferFull = false;
                System.out.println("Started producing!....");

* @author Nagasharath
class ProducerThread extends Thread {
    public void run() {
           try {
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {


* @author Nagasharath
class ConsumerThread extends Thread {
    public void run() {
        try {
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {


    public static void main(String[] args) {
    BufferImpl impl = new BufferImpl();
    ProducerThread producerThread = impl.new ProducerThread();
    ConsumerThread consumerThread = impl.new ConsumerThread();


Let us simplify the above program

Variables used in the program:

        private CopyOnWriteArrayList<String> buffer;

       private final short SIZE = 10;

        private boolean isBufferFull = false;

buffer is of type CopyOnWriteArrayList [COWA] to store elements. CopyOnWriteArrayList is fail safe data structure which is suitable for concurrent programs. 
Do not forget to run the same program by replacing CopyOnArrayList with ArrayList. If this is the case the program throws ConcurrentModificationException as a result as ArrayList Iterator is fail fast behavior.   

SIZE is a constant of type short which holds the size of COWA data structure

isBufferFull is a switch which holds whether the buffer size is full or not. 

Method to implement Producer algorithm:

 1     /**
 2        * @throws InterruptedException
 3        */
 4     private void producesFeed() throws InterruptedException {
 5         synchronized (this) {
 7             while (true) {
 8                 if (isBufferFull) {
 9                     System.out.println("Started Consuming!....\n");
10                     notify();
11                     wait();
12                 }
14             buffer.add(String.valueOf(System.nanoTime()));
15              if (SIZE <= buffer.size()) {
16                 isBufferFull = true;
17                 Thread.sleep(10000);
18                 System.out.println("Buffer full. Production halts...\n");
19             }
20             }
21         }
22     }

producesFeed() uses java keyword synchronized, Object class notify(), Object class wait() and Thread class sleep() to get the job done.

Line 5: keyword synchronized is used to gain the monitor lock on this object. Here this  refers to the    PCProblem object. Lock ensures mutual exclusion. These are of 2 types Implicit locks and reentrent locks. 

synchronized key word is of type implicit lock also known as intrincic lock.

NOTE: Use synchronization judicially because it influences the performance of application. [Slows down the speed of program]   

Let's see more about synchronization and monitor locks in upcoming posts.

Line 7: Initiates the infinite while loop which runs continuously.

Line 10: calls notify() which is one of the inter thread communication Object class api to tell next waiting thread to start it's communication

Line 11: calls wait() which is again one of the inter thread communication Object class api to tell current thread to wait until next running thread notifies.

Line 14: buffer starts holding current time in nano seconds as element of String type. This will be continues till the size reaches 10.
Line 15: checks the above condition

Line 17: Once the SIZE reaches limit to 10 calls Thread.sleep() to make the current running thread to sleep for 10 seconds. [Used here only for demo sake and to simulate the processing behavior]

 1     /**
 2      * @throws InterruptedException
 3      */
 4     private void consumesFeed() throws InterruptedException {
 5         synchronized (this) {
 6             while (true) {
 7                 Iterator<String> iter = buffer.iterator();
 8                 while (iter.hasNext()) {
 9                         String next = iter.next();
10                         System.out.println("Consuming element: " + next);
11                         buffer.remove(buffer.indexOf(next));
12                   }
13                 isBufferFull = false;
14                 System.out.println("Started producing!....");
15                 notify();
16                 wait();
17             }
18         }
19     }

Line 5: Acquires lock on PCProblem Object 

Line 7: Iterator of CopyOnWrireArrayList to iterate over List for processing it. The basic difference between ArrayList and COWA is Fail fast behavior. ArrayList is fail fast and COWA is Fail safe suitable for cuncurrent behavior. 

Note: Never use for (string ele : listObj) { .... } to modify elements in a list. Instead use Iterator.

Line 11: Once element is consumed remove the element from list.

Line 13: Make flag isBufferFull false once all data is consumed.

Line 15 and Line 16: Call to notify() and wait() to tell the producer thread to start it's execution and the latter one to make current thread to wait respectively.


 1     /**
 2      * @author Nagasharath
 3      *
 4      */
 5     class ProducerThread extends Thread {
 6         @Override
 7         public void run() {
 8               try {
 9                 producesFeed();
10             } catch (InterruptedException e) {
12             }
13         }
14       }
16     /**
17      * @author Nagasharath
18      *
19      */
20     class ConsumerThread extends Thread {
21         @Override
22         public void run() {
23             try {
24                 consumesFeed();
25              } catch (InterruptedException e) {
27             }
28         }
29       }

The above snippet creates 2 Threads one is Producer thread and the other is Consumer thread. 

Line 1 to Line 16: ProducerThread extends Thead class [part of java core API] then at run time JVM considers closely works with operating system to run this producesFeed() as a separate thread. 

Line 16 to Line 29: ConsumerThread extends Thread class which runs consumerThread() as a seperate thread. In our use case Producer and Consumer executes simultaneously.

 1        public static void main(String[] args) {
 2             BufferImpl impl = new BufferImpl();
 3             ProducerThread producerThread = impl.new ProducerThread();
 4             ConsumerThread consumerThread = impl.new ConsumerThread();
 6             producerThread.start();
 7             consumerThread.start();
 8         }

Line 1: creates main(). Java run time first executes this method as an initial thread. This thread is responsible for creating all other threads. in our case ProducerThread and ConsumerThread.

Line 6 and Line 7: Call to the start() starts producer and consumer threads.

Note: always prefer start() to run() of Thread class to initiate and start new Thread.


Buffer full. Production halts...

Started Consuming!....

Consuming element: 2747727445120473
Consuming element: 2747727445291566
Consuming element: 2747727445310340
Consuming element: 2747727445349593
Consuming element: 2747727445369646
Consuming element: 2747727445377753
Consuming element: 2747727445384153
Consuming element: 2747727445390126
Consuming element: 2747727445395673
Consuming element: 2747727445400793
Started producing!....
Buffer full. Production halts...

Started Consuming!....

Consuming element: 2747737453672999
Consuming element: 2747737453761319
Consuming element: 2747737453798013
Consuming element: 2747737453825319
Consuming element: 2747737453849639
Consuming element: 2747737453871826
Consuming element: 2747737453893159
Consuming element: 2747737453914919
Consuming element: 2747737453936679
Consuming element: 2747737453957586
Started producing!....

That's all for now. Next post explains solution to the same PC problem using concurrency utility classes introduced in Java 1.5.

Happy coding! :)

Wednesday 24 January 2018

Every Java programmer must read books

Every Java programmer must read and understand the following books.

1. Effective Java

2. Concurrency in practice

Effective Java:

This book is authored by Joshua Bloch. He took the major role in authoring the java.util package which is [collection framework] one of the java core libraries.

He explains the best practices that every programmer should consider while writing java programs.

Some of them are:

  • Contract between hashcode() and equals() of Object class when programmer overrides one of these methods in their classes
  • Exceptions
  • concurrency: Inter thread communication, synchronization etc
  • Immutable Objects
The above points are few among others.

Concurrency in practice:

This book gives complete explanation about how efficient concurrency is achieved in java programs using concurrency utility classes which were introduced in Java 5 version.

This book is authored by:

  • Brian Goetz
  • Tim peierls
  • Joshua Bloch
  • Joseph Bowbeer
  • David Holmes and
  • Doug Lea

You can get them from amazon in form of hard copy or soft copy or both. Get them soon. :)

Sunday 21 January 2018

Internals of JVM

Internals of Java Virtual Machine are explained very clearly in the below blog by James Blooms. 

Internals of JVM by James Blooms

CHEAT SHEET for java List interface, LinkedList and ArrayList

Consider Below points before choosing List concrete implementations for your use case: 

  • ArrayList is a linear data structure and  re-sizable/dynamic array
  • Initial size can be given. and if not given the default size is 10
  • It is always good practice to give initial size and advised not to give very large number as size
  • Good programmers prefer ArrayList to LinkedList if retrieval operations is done more frequently than insertion and deletions of elements.
  • Better choose LinkedList if insertion and deletion operations are done frequently compared to retrieval operations.
  • Lists are not sorted. if required use Collections.sort() to sort
  • Collections.sort() uses optimized merge sort [tim sort] on ArrayList
  • However legacy merge sort also can be used using a switch. But it is going to be deprecated  in near future 

  • The major difference between ArrayList and LinkedList is RandomAccess behavior 

  • ArrayLists uses Random access indexing where as LinkedLists uses
          Sequential access indexing
  • LinkedList carries extra overhead in the form of reference to the next and previous elements other than element's data itself

  • LinkedList uses Doubly LinkedList data structure internally

  • Deque is the java DoubleLinkedList data structure implementation

  • Before choosing List implementation ask yourself below questions 
                    a. Are you aware of initial size? 
                    b. Which operations are used more frequently? [insertion, deletion,
                       retrieval, search, sort are few among others]

  • Search Algorithm: 
                  a. Collections class uses binary search if List is ArrayList
                  b. Collections class uses linear search if List is of type LinkedList

  • ArrayList and LinkedList both uses fast fail iterations.

  • If another thread tries to modify list while iterating, java runtime throws ConcurrentModificationException. This can be considered as fast fail behavior  

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